How does biometrics work?
Biometrics is an identification system that recognizes an individual through the physical characteristics that are representative of each person.
What a biometric sensor does is transform a unique and inimitable physical feature of a subject, such as voice or fingerprints, into an electrical signal, in order to identify it accurately. This is done thanks to the measurement of parameters such as temperature, light, or skin´s furrows, among others.
The sensor must be capable of capturing the images, or other characteristics, of that part of the body that wants to be identify, locating these images in a database where the necessary information will be stored in the form of algorithms controlled by a software.
Actually, to identify one of these features with precision, sensors´ networks are used sometimes combined with high accuracy cameras and microphones.
Each one of the sensors or systems used for the verification or identification of an individual has certain differences:
A signature identification system, for example, works by analyzing our writing, the pressure we apply while we draw our name, the type of curves or rubrics we make, or the speed at which we do it.
In case of a fingerprint reader, the user would register his fingerprint on a sensor that would capture it and take a three-dimensional image, storing in the form of an encrypted biometric key its specific characteristics, such as furrows or papillary ridges. The algorithm of this sensor extracts certain points of the image converting it in an encrypted mathematical model that is filed in a database.
What is really valuable about this process is that a specific image of the fingerprint is not saved, so it is extremely difficult for this information to be stolen.
The second time the user puts his finger on the sensor to verify his identity, a new image of the fingerprint is extracted and the sample of this data is compared with the one previously recorded. If these two samples coincide we Will have a positive verification of the user.
It would be slightly different to analyze a person´s retina, focusing on the blood vessels behind the eye and using a low-frequency light, or the use of a voice recognition system where we would include the analysis of the tone, frequency, or timbre among other specific features.
These, and other methods of personal biometric identification are being implemented in a multitude of locations such as companies, electronic stores, gyms or homes and are revealed as the future of technology in terms of online and physical security.